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   Table of Contents - Current issue
January-April 2021
Volume 2 | Issue 1
Page Nos. 1-29

Online since Tuesday, March 23, 2021

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Managing Illicit Drug Use and Gambling Cases in Poor Countries: Fixing Accountabilities and Finding Solutions p. 1
Sudip Bhattacharya, Amarjeet Singh
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Needle stick injuries and postexposure prophylaxis for hepatitis B infection p. 4
Tarika Sharma, Ashok Chaudhary, Jitender Singh
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a global public health challenge as roughly a quarter of the world's population has serological evidence of past or present hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. Healthcare personnel, who work in healthcare settings, represent a high-risk population for serious, potentially life-threatening Hepatitis B Virus infections. Needle stick injuries pose a serious risk for occupational transmission of hepatitis B virus and may occur during various procedures such as needle recapping, operative procedures, blood collection, intravenous line administration, blood sugar monitoring, and due to improper sharps/needle disposal. Infections acquired through occupational exposure are largely preventable through strict control measures such as the use of safe devices, proper waste disposal, immunization and prompt management of exposures including the use of Post Exposure Prophylaxis. The current review highlights the first aid management, reporting, baseline investigations as well as post exposure prophylaxis for Hepatitis B following needle stick injury.
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Knowledge and practices of blood donors regarding COVID-19 p. 9
Tarika Sharma, Vaseem Raza, Manglam Kumari, Swati Srivastava, Karthik Ponnappan
Introduction: COVID-19 pandemic has threatened the safety of both donors and recipients thus negatively impacting the blood donation process. Home confinement limits the ability of donors to attend blood services and the staff to take part in collection teams as well. The restrictions and limitations of large gatherings also reduce the number of large blood drives and campaigns. Aim: The current survey was undertaken soon after the official announcement of nationwide lockdown to assess the COVID-19-related knowledge and expressed practices about precautions among blood donors visiting blood bank. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional survey conducted on 109 blood donors visiting blood bank in the month of March–April 2020. Data were collected using structured knowledge questionnaire and expressed practice checklist. After collecting data, the donors were provided with information related to COVID-19, and its precautions as per the guidelines from the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, India. The obtained data were analyzed using the SPSS software version 22. Results: In terms of knowledge, it was found that 51.3% donors had very good knowledge, 42.3% had good knowledge, whereas 6.4% donors had poor knowledge about COVID-19. With regard to practices related to COVID precautions, it was noticed that most (90.82%) of the donors followed best practices, 9.18% donors followed good practices, whereas none of the donor followed poor practices. A significant positive correlation (P ≤ 0.01) was found between knowledge and practice score of blood donors. Significant association was seen in knowledge with educational status (P = 0.003) and practice with place of residence (P = 0.010). Conclusion: Based on the findings, it was concluded that 51.3% donors had very good knowledge, whereas 6.4% donors had poor knowledge about COVID-19. With regard to the practices related to COVID precautions, most (90.82%) of the donors followed best practices, 9.18% donors followed good practices, whereas none of the donor followed poor practices. Hence, the health-care professionals must take active steps to disseminate correct and updated information to blood donors regarding COVID-19 and related precautions.
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Knowledge, attitude, and practice toward prevention and management of COVID-19 among indian nurses: A cross-sectional study p. 14
Aayushi Rastogi, Sabin Syed, Akanksha Bansal, Archana Ramalingam, Tarika Sharma, Vinay Kumar, Mini George, Mohit Varshney
Background: To plan suitable policy against COVID-19 pandemic, it is important that the nurses have updated knowledge related to prevention, diagnosis, treatment, and management of COVID-19 and have an optimistic attitude and good practices in managing the patients during the pandemic crisis. Thus, we conducted a study on the knowledge, attitude, and practices (KAP) related to COVID-19 among Indian nursing professionals. Methodology: A cross-sectional study was conducted from April 22 to May 22, 2020 using a pretested 37-item-self-reported e-questionnaire among nursing professionals above 18 years of age, working in health-care setting across 25 states. The questionnaire consisted of four sections: demographic details, knowledge (26 items), attitude (6 items), and practice (5-itmes). KAP questionnaire was shared through e-mail, SMS, and WhatsApp groups. Results: A total of 1182 participants responded to the online survey with 94% completion rate. The study analyzed the data for 1110 nurses with a mean age of 30 ± 6.7 years and 68% being females. The mean KAP score was 16.82 ± 3.3, 9.77 ± 2.03, and 18.37 ± 3.29, respectively. Knowledge was significantly correlated with attitude (r = 0.1316) and practice (r = 0.1526). Practice and attitude were also found to be positively correlated (r = 0.4398). Good knowledge related to COVID-19 was significantly affected by age, gender, location, and type of facility (<0.01). Conclusion: The study raised concerns regarding poor knowledge, anxiety, and fear from COVID-19 duty affects the health-care workers (HCWs) performance and provides resistance in working. A comprehensive training program for HCWs focuses more in terms of infection, prevention, control, and management and maintaining good mental health is required.
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A pilot study to analyze the quality of sleep by pittsburgh sleep quality index in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome p. 22
Sunil Chouhan, Ajay Haldar, Ruchi Singh, Ragni Shrivastava
Background: Various studies have shown that polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) patients have sleeping problems and disturbances associated with depression, anxiety, stress, drowsy driving, and other clinical symptoms. This study was taken to investigate the sleep status in POCS women according to the Rotterdam criteria. Aim: This was a pilot study to analyze the quality of sleep by Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) in patients with poly ovary cystic disease in Bhopal. Materials and Methods: Sixty-two PCOS patients (mean age-24.54 ± 2.63 years) and 31 healthy controls (mean age: 23.20 ± 3.9 years) were recruited from AIIMS, Bhopal, who were evaluated for specific sleep quality by means of PSQI questionnaires. A PSQI global score of ≥5 confirmed the presence of poor quality of sleep. Results: The POCS patients have a global score of 7.97 ± 3.61 than the non-POCS control group 5.42 ± 2.73, thereby indicating that POCS patients have poor sleep quality. Among the seven components, “sleep latency” has a maximum mean score of 1.85 ± 0.99 (control = 1.23 ± 0.85) and a minimum mean score of 0.32 ± 0.82 (control = 0.21 ± 0.75) was attributed to the “use of sleeping Medicine” component. The PSQI mean scores of POCS patients were 1.44 ± 1.44, 1.39 ± 0.61, and 0.89 ± 1.10 for “Subjective sleep quality,” “sleep disturbance,” and “sleep duration,” respectively, and the results were statistically significantly (P < 0.05) when compared to other components and control. Conclusion: This study on the basis of substantiation data found evidence that PCOS women have a relatively poor quality of sleep when compared with the normal control group.
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Poverty, gambling, and illicit drug use perpetuate each other in a bidirectional cycle: An analysis from a case study p. 26
Sudip Bhattacharya, Amarjeet Singh
Illicit drug use and gambling are global problem, and multiple stakeholders are involved in it. This often leads to devastating physical, mental, and socioeconomic consequences for the family. In this case study, we describe our experience with an urban poor family from north India that was disintegrated by illicit drug and gambling use by one of its members. In this case, the family and school failed to recognize and act on the early warning signs of drug addiction and gambling. Health system failed to retain and follow him up. Law enforcement was also inadequate. It was a multisystem failure. For managing an illicit drug use case, we have also to address the cultural and social complexities that are part of the poverty subculture. Adequate involvement of multiple sectors and optimal follow-up can not only help the patient but also it prevents the collateral damage to a large extent in the affected families.
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